A commercial loan is a debt-based funding arrangement between a business and a financial institution such as a bank, typically used to fund major capital expenditures and/or cover operational costs that the company may otherwise be unable to afford, as opposed to a loan made to an individual. Expensive upfront costs and regulatory hurdles often prevent small businesses from having direct access to bond and equity markets for financing. Similar to consumer credit, smaller businesses must rely on other lending products, such as a line of credit, unsecured loans or term loans. Commercial loans are granted to a variety of business entities, usually to assist with short-term funding needs for operational costs or for the purchase of equipment to facilitate the operating process. In some instances, the loan may be extended to help the business meet more basic operational needs, such as funding for payroll or to purchase smaller supplies that are used in the production and manufacturing process. These loans often require that a business post collateral, usually in the form of property, plant or equipment that the bank can confiscate from the borrower in the event of default or bankruptcy. Sometimes cash flows generated from future accounts receivable are used as a loan’s collateral. Mortgages issued to commercial real estate are one particular form of commercial loan.